This is my Preliminary Care Coordination Plan. I will upload the instructions.
Obesity is a multifaceted disease characterized by an excess of body fat. Obesity is more than just a cosmetic issue. It is a health problem that causes other diseases and health complications such as heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, some cancers, etc… Certain individuals struggle with weight loss for various reasons. Genetic, physiological, psychosocial, behavioral, and environmental factors, as lack of education in food choices and physical activities all influences the debilitating obese disease. Fruh (2017) states to be obese implies having a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher. A body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 is generally considered overweight, while obesity is considered a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. It is well known that obesity and overweight are a growing problem globally with high rates in both developed and developing countries (Capodaglio & Liuzzi, 2013; WHO, 2016a, 2016b).
Physical Needs for Obese Patients
Individuals that are obese can follow the same exercise regimen as people of average weight; however, unique aspects should be considered, such as prevailing co-morbidities associated with obesity- orthopedic risk (joint pain), circulatory, and cardiac co-morbidities. Individuals should not be discouraged from participating in exercise programs because exercise is crucial for overall health (Niemiro et al., 2019). As a result, movement is the key to successfully overcoming the battle of obesity. To ensure patient safety, patients must be approved by their health professional for any comorbid conditions based on history and physical examination. Furthermore, it is necessary to establish regulated exercise schedules for obese patients.
Increasing energy outlay and finding enjoyment in physical activities can aid in the reduction of adipose tissue and weight gain. Evans et al., (2018) indicate people who are overweight are strongly encouraged to do either anaerobic or aerobic exercise. Walking, running, cycling, rowing, yoga, and weightlifting are such activities. Obese patients′ physical activity needs, in general, should include elements of goal setting, problem-solving skills, recreational physical fitness, and exercise used for commuting. As a result, desirable outcomes such as cardiovascular endurance, athletic performance, and muscular fitness will be produced.
Obesity can lead to increase emotional distress, and decrease self-esteem, life satisfaction, and self-image. As a result of these considerations, mental health experts are included as members of the treatment team, where they can examine and treat these concerns in clients as needed. Weight loss is generally linked to enhancing psychological, functional, and social status which uplifts and encourages oneself to explore more adventurous ideas. Such positive developments are often most noticeable in those who have lost significant weight, as is familiar with bariatric surgery.
Unfortunately, there is a percentage of people who have lost weight return to their old destructive behaviors or start having new ones. Regardless of the method used to lose weight, those who regain weight risk resuming unwanted psychological symptoms. Personality traits can be one of many results in how obese/overweight have this yoyo effect of losing and regaining this deadly disease. Buratta et al. (2021) illustrated as personality is concerned individual′s patterns of feeling, behavior, and thinking, it may help in understanding how people with obesity differ from people with normal-weight status in their typical weight-relevant behavior. So far,
studies about personality and BMI associations have mainly focused on broad personality traits. Several personality and psychopathological aspects were assessed with the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). The results of the analysis of variance of aligned rank transformed (ART) showed that patients with overweight/obesity reported higher scores for Somatic Complaints, Depression, and Borderline Features than the control group.
Food consumption is widely impacted by way of life and varies geographically, as are sentiments toward consuming for sociability, pleasure, and environmental sustainability. Food culture is defined as individuals′ perceptions, ideologies, and heritage about food and eating, as well as the social bonds and institutions that connect people through and around food. Dao et al., (2020) found that food culture dramatically affects how and what obese people eat. Individually or as a group, cultural traits about unrestricted feeding or eating styles affect how much people eat and how they see themselves. As a result, it is essential to determine any inherent cultural factors triggering the obesity epidemic.
Marshall et al. (2022) say cultural factors like traditions and ideas about how the body should look can affect whether or not your patients will follow your advice on losing weight. This shows that obese people seek acceptance and worth from their coworkers and the community. So, stereotyping and labeling make it even harder to stop the growing number of obese people. Therefore, treating and managing their diet plan, physical activities, psychotherapy, and even tracking their progress with the most compassion and understanding is essential.
Community resources for a safe and effective continuum of care
Integrated Physical Activities Strategies
There are numerous strategies for promoting exercise in society. Among these strategies are point-of-decision prompts to motivate the use of tracks or trials, individually tailored wellness behavior modification initiatives, amplified education physical activities, and significant media initiatives that deliver messages via television, radio, journal, and social media. The community also tries to make more places where people can do useful things, like building public schools and walking paths. These resources will enable continuous aftercare once the patients are discharged.
Conducive Food Environments
There are a variety of initiatives and policies that can help to create vibrant community food environments. These include offering incentives for supermarket chains or grocery stores to open in underserved areas, including nutrition and calorie information on stalls and restaurants′ food menu options, and having to implement and promote nutrition requirements for child rearing, schools, hospitals, and workplaces. Furthermore, homesteads have a greater emphasis on endorsing healthy lifestyle choices and diet plans. Individuals will be in an atmosphere that encourages and enhances nutritious eating, thereby improving their body immunity, with this available in the community.
Goals to Address Obesity
Individuals dealing with obesity need an avenue that is warm and accommodating for them to accomplish their treatment plan effectively. Therefore, it is crucial to ensure as the community and even health centers act accordingly and treat such patients with care. This is one way to decrease psychological problems that can generate suicidal thoughts.
Another goal is to foster individualization and increase personal growth and awareness. Having the ability to learn more about themselves will create an understanding of their well-being and capacity to be aware of unregulated food cultures, deviant lifestyles, and toxic community environments. Every person is responsible for being the best version of themselves. Occasionally help is needed to achieve this substantial goal and to be able to hold this type of empowerment takes strength within and strength within the encircle of life.
Sharon M. Fruh, PhD, RN, FNP‐BC, (Professor), (2017). Obesity: Risks factors, complications, and strategies for sustainable long-term weight management. J Am Assoc Nurse Pract. 2017 Oct; 29(Suppl 1): S3–S14. Published online 2017 Oct 12. doi: 10.1002/2327-6924.12510
Dao, M. C., Thiron, S., Messer, E., Sergeant, C., Sévigné, A., Huart, C., Rossi, M., Silverman, I., Sakaida, K., Bel Lassen, P., Sarrat, C., Arciniegas, L., Das, S. K., Gausserès, N., Clément, K., & Roberts, S. B. (2020). Cultural Influences on the Regulation of Energy Intake and Obesity: A Qualitative Study Comparing Food Customs and Attitudes to Eating in Adults from France and the United States. Nutrients, 13(1), 63. https://doi.org/10.3390%2Fnu13010063
Evans, E. H., Sainsbury, K., Kwasnicka, D., Bolster, A., Araujo-Soares, V., & Sniehotta, F. F. (2018). Support needs of patients with obesity in primary care: a practice-list survey. BMC family practice, 19(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1186%2Fs12875-017-0703-4
Marshall, S., Taki, S., Laird, Y., Love, P., Wen, L. M., & Rissel, C. (2022). Cultural adaptations of obesity‐related behavioral prevention interventions in early childhood: A systematic review. Obesity Reviews, 23(4), e13402.
Niemiro, G. M., Rewane, A., & Algotar, A. M. (2019). Exercise and Fitness Effect On Obesity. In: StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing, Treasure Island (FL).
Uratta, Livia, Pazzagli, Chiara, Delvecchio, Elisa, Cenco, Giulia, Germani, Alessandro and Mazzeschi, Claudia (2021). Personality Features in Obesity. Front. Psychol., 14 January 2021 Sec. Psychology for Clinical Settings