Drama, Dance and Cinematics

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P​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​lease be sure the margins are narrowed and the review completes the entire page.
Source: Textbook Film: A Critical Introduction 4th edition, Maria Pramaggiore and Tom Wallis. There are also 12 weekly summaries (each worth approximately 1.25%) of assigned chapter/s for each week: one full page single space and typed (Times New Roman font #12, narrow margins all around). Try to summarize the important aspects of each chapter. Please include the summary number on top of your paper. Summary #4 on chapter 5 (A one page single space summary is sufficient for the chapter) This is a sample summary it is all one paragraph and does not appear to be in any style like APA or MLA. Imani Musengwa Summary # 1: The central concept behind early physical comedy is the idea that people are merely moving objects. They are unable to be truly harmed and this illusion of indestructibility prevents the audience from feeling fear while watching characters get tripped and beaten. To enhance the illusion further, director Mack Sennet began to speed up the frames to give characters a more artificial and funnier look. Because of his focus on humor, Sennet’s films were usually roughly plotted and followed one of three different structures. The first is a melodramatic plotline with gags inserted; the second is a specific filled with gags that play on the environment. The third structure a Sennet film may have is a parody. These are more plot-driven than the other two structures but focus on parodying entire films and filling them with gags. Some examples of these structures are Tillie’s Punctured Romance (1914), The Masquerader (1914), and Carmen (1915), respectively. The Sennet style set a standard among comic films, putting to the forefront zaniness and physical comedy, while also pioneering the technical use of camera frame speed to add humor to the physical comedy. As Sennet continued his career, moving from director to producer, his films lost their improvisation and slapstick quality. Charlie Chaplin was a constant figure in Sennet’s works. He was originally unsure of working in films, because he started off as a theatre comedian. In Sennet’s works, he appeared solely as a physical comedian with no depth or character, which Chaplin disliked. This would eventually lead to the creation of the ‘tramp; character Chaplin is famous for. In 1914 Chaplin began directing his own comedies, going on to direct 19 out of 35 Keystone films he acted in. His vision for comedies was fundamentally different from Sennet’s. Where Sennet saw physical comedy and shallow jokes, Chaplin saw a way to examine the real world and its prejudices. This is in part because of his childhood; Chaplin grew up poor, an outsider of wealth and upper-class society. His character the tramp reflected that outsider-looking-in experience. Another contrast between him and Sennet is the pacing of the movies. Chaplin slowed down the action conside​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​rably, stretching films to three or five minutes long instead of mere seconds. Each film could be separated into four distinct scenes which establish relationships and dynamics. This scene structure allowed him to dive deeper into the details, establishing character motivation or class disparities rather than focusing solely on gags. The gags themselves are functional in Chaplin’s films, showing the character’s place in society when they goof off in ways that show their clumsy attempts at sophistication. The tramp character was a sign of mature comedy, for as well as dissecting class differences, the character himself explored human complexity. While the tramp character was a scoundrel, he had dualism in his kind heart throughout the movies, often evoked by a female character. This character was played recurringly by actress Edna Purviance. The woman characters served as metaphors for beauty uncorrupted by societal ideals, to which Chaplin is affiliated with due to his character’s protective feelings for the women. Chaplin also included much social commentary through the physicality of his characters. Large characters demonstrated oppressive social ins, such as Eric the giant pummeling the small runt Charlie in Easy Street (1917). Cops get the same treatment too. Instead of being buffoons, they are oppressive bullies on the hunt to only pursue those who are already down in society’s eyes: characters like Charlie. Chaplin never trivializes the obstacles in the face of social harmony. Often, movies where an easy solution is found is shown to be merely a dream at the end, or otherwise close with Charlie losing yet again. But with all the social commentary and lamenting, Chaplin never loses the comedic effect in his work. In fact, his comedy is his most brilliant tool. His use of objects was ingenious because instead of simply using them as comedic weapons, they became both weapons and tools for the character using it. In addition to exhausting an environment like Sennet, Chaplin would exhaust an environment by tiring the location’s potential objects for their various uses. One of his most famous short films employs this very trick, One A.M. (1916). He is the only character save a taxi driver in the intro, and the entire film is Chaplin manipulating a roomful of objects in various humorous ways. A similar film in this regard is The Pawn Shop (1916) where while Chaplin manipulates various objects, he takes on different comedic personas such as a jeweler, doctor, and shopper. Chaplin was so momentous in his ability to examine the contradictions between what was considered good and evil within the bourgeois social system. His ability to so this while keeping his audience on their toes and amused the entirety of his films is what made him the first superstar of his era, and what makes his films still relatable in this day and age.
Please be sure the margins are narrowed and the review com​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​pletes the entire page.

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